Acetogenins, quinolines, isoquinolines, annopentocins and annomuricins (7). Coreximine and reticuline subfractions have been isolated from root bark (6).
Mechanism of Action
Annonaceous acetogenins, a phytochemical isolated from the leaves, bark and twigs of graviola, are thought to be the active ingredient. The ethanolic extract of Annona muricata was found to inhibit the Herpes simplex virus (1). The ethyl acetate extract was found to be more active than the methanolic or hexanolic extracts. Extracts were shown to be effective against Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis promastigotes and the cancer cell line U 937 (3) and hepatoma cell lines(8) in vitro. Extracts were also shown to be lethal to the fresh-water mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata, which acts as a host for the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni (2). Alkaloids from graviola have been shown to be detrimental to the survival of dopaminergic nerve cells in vitro. This may in turn lead to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. Graviola-induced cell death was inhibited by the supplementation of glucose suggesting that cell death was caused by energy depletion (6). Graviola extracts have also been shown to be effective against the growth of Adriamycin resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) by blocking the cancer cell’s access to ATP and by inhibiting the actions of plasma membrane glycoprotein (5). Graviola may also have antidepressive activity due to its ability to stimulate serotonine receptors (7).